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How Does ADHD Affect the Brain?

While we often hear details of specific ADHD symptoms and the implications of these for people living with the condition, the question of how ADHD impacts the brain specifically remains somewhat of a mystery for many. ADHD affects millions of individuals worldwide, but how does it actually work, and how does its effect on the brain contribute to typical ADHD behaviours?
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How Does ADHD Affect the Brain?


While we often hear details of specific ADHD symptoms and the implications of these for people living with the condition, the question of how ADHD impacts the brain specifically remains somewhat of a mystery for many. ADHD affects millions of individuals worldwide, but how does it actually work, and how does its effect on the brain contribute to typical ADHD behaviours?

In this exploration, we delve into the intricate relationship between ADHD and the brain, examining how the disorder impacts brain structure, function, and connectivity. We’ll also look at the neural pathways involved in ADHD symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity, and emotional dysregulation. Let’s get into it.


ADHD in Adults: Understanding the Basics

ADHD isn’t just a childhood disorder; it can persist into adulthood, too, presenting unique challenges and complexities. Understanding the basics of ADHD in adults specifically involves exploring how the condition manifests – from its impact on executive functions to its influence on emotional regulation.

In brief…

  • Adults with ADHD may struggle with organisation, time management, and impulse control, which can affect various aspects of their lives, including work, relationships, and daily routines.
  • Emotional dysregulation is also common among adults with ADHD, leading to mood swings, irritability, and difficulty managing stress.

In adults with ADHD, neuroimaging studies have revealed differences in brain structure and function compared to neurotypical individuals. Below, we explore this in more detail:

ADHD’s Effect on Brain Structures and Functions

Functional MRI (fMRI) studies and neuroimaging studies have provided invaluable insights into the changes in neurotransmitter activity within ADHD brains, highlighting abnormalities in regions that are crucial for attention, impulse control, and emotional regulation.

  • Disruptions in neurotransmitter systems, particularly dopamine and noradrenaline, impairs signal transmission within neural networks, affecting arousal, motivation, and reward processing.
  • The prefrontal cortex, responsible for executive functions such as decision-making and planning, exhibits structural differences in individuals with ADHD. Reduced volume and altered connectivity within this region contribute to deficits in inhibitory control and attention regulation.
  • Abnormalities in the basal ganglia, involved in motor control and reward processing, contribute to impulsivity and hyperactivity in individuals with ADHD.
  • Dysregulated activation in the frontal lobe (key for attentional processing) leads to adults with ADHD struggling during tasks requiring sustained attention and cognitive control.

Brain Imaging Studies: Insights Into ADHD

Advancements in the aforementioned brain imaging techniques have revolutionised our understanding of ADHD. Through fMRI studies, researchers have illuminated differences in brain activation patterns among individuals with ADHD, revealing alterations in regions associated with attention, impulse control, and executive functions.

Delving into the intricacies of functional connectivity and neural networks allows brain imaging studies to provide invaluable knowledge about the neurobiological basis of ADHD, paving the way for targeted interventions and personalised ADHD treatment approaches.

More About Neurotransmitter Dysregulation in ADHD

As discussed, dopamine and noradrenaline are neurotransmitters that play crucial roles in regulating attention, arousal, and motivation, making their dysregulation central to the manifestation of ADHD symptoms.


Dopamine, often referred to as the “reward neurotransmitter,” is involved in various cognitive functions, including attention, executive functions, and reinforcement of behaviour.

In individuals with ADHD, alterations in dopamine neurotransmission contribute to deficits in attention regulation and impulse control. Research suggests that reduced dopamine activity in the prefrontal cortex may underlie the cognitive symptoms observed in ADHD.


Noradrenaline is involved in the body’s stress response and alertness, and also plays a crucial role in ADHD.

Dysregulation of noradrenaline levels affects arousal, vigilance, and mood stability.

Studies have shown that medications targeting noradrenaline reuptake can effectively alleviate ADHD symptoms by modulating noradrenaline levels in the brain.

Understanding the role of neurotransmitter dysregulation in ADHD not only sheds light on the underlying neurobiology of the disorder, but also informs the development of pharmacological interventions.

Medications such as stimulants and non-stimulants aim to restore balance in dopamine and noradrenaline levels, thereby improving attention, impulse control, and overall functioning in individuals with ADHD.


Seeking a Professional Diagnosis and Treatment for ADHD

Seeking a professional diagnosis is the crucial first step in managing ADHD effectively. A comprehensive evaluation by our qualified experts here at The ADHD Centre can provide the clarity you deserve regarding ADHD symptoms and their impact on your daily functioning.

Our careful assessments include clinical interviews, behavioural observations, and standardised rating scales to accurately determine whether ADHD is present and tailor treatment recommendations accordingly. From medication management to behavioural therapy and lifestyle interventions, our personalised treatment plans can help individuals with ADHD optimise their cognitive functions, manage symptoms, and enhance their overall quality of life.

ADHD Support at The ADHD Centre

With a focus on evidence-based practices and compassionate care, we are committed to supporting individuals with ADHD on their journey towards improved mental health and well-being. Get in touch today for more information about how we can support you.


How Does ADHD Affect Brain Development?

Brain development is a dynamic process shaped by genetic factors, environmental influences, and neuroplasticity. In the context of ADHD, numerous studies have shed light on how the condition impacts brain development from childhood to adulthood. Research findings highlight alterations in brain structure, such as differences in grey matter volume and cortical thickness, as well as disruptions in white matter integrity and connectivity.

Can ADHD Alter Brain Connectivity?

Yes, ADHD can disrupt brain connectivity patterns, affecting communication between different brain regions. Neuroimaging studies have revealed alterations in functional connectivity networks, such as the default mode network and frontoparietal network, in individuals with ADHD. These connectivity disruptions contribute to difficulties in integrating information, regulating emotions, and maintaining attentional focus.

How Does ADHD Brain Structure Compare to Neurotypical Brain Structure?

Key findings from neuroimaging studies include alterations in the size and shape of certain brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. These differences may contribute to the cognitive and behavioural symptoms characteristic of ADHD, including difficulties in impulse control, attention regulation, and emotional regulation.

Can ADHD Lead to Changes in Brain Activation Patterns?

Yes, ADHD can lead to changes in brain activation patterns, particularly during cognitive tasks. Individuals with ADHD may exhibit atypical patterns of brain activation in regions associated with attention, impulse control, and working memory. These aberrant activation patterns may reflect inefficient neural processing and compensatory mechanisms employed to cope with cognitive challenges.

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We have been diagnosing and treating people with ADHD since 2009.

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